#10 John Tyler

john tyler

Term: 1841-1845

Party: Whig/Independent

The first Vice president to enter office due the death of the President. John Tyler assumes the presidency with the nickname “his accidency”. When he was under Harrison’s administration he was supported by the Whig party, but that support soon left as he had vetoed a bill to recreate the national bank. This act would also have nearly his entire cabinet resign. Despite having to reinstate most of his cabinet members, having no political party’s support, and threats from the congress to impeach him in 1843, Tyler continued his duties as president. Tyler urged western settlement with the passing of the Pre-Emption act allowing one to buy 160 acres of land from the government. The long Seminole war that began during the Jackson term when the Seminole Indians refused relocation ended during Tyler’s term. John Tyler also tackled Boundary issues with Canada and opened Chinese ports to American ships. Right before the end of his term, John Tyler annexed Texas as the 28th state in March of 1845. Tyler did not have enough support to win his reelection. Our Nation did not elect his as president and despite his lack of support throughout his entire term, John Tyler carried the heavy duties of a president that was thrust upon him after Harrison’s sudden death and did not resign even after attempts to impeach him from office. After his term, during the brink of CIvil war, John Tyler votes in favor of Virginia’s succession. This act would lead to President Lincoln and the US government to not acknowledge his death publically.

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/john-tyler

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/johntyler/p/ptyler.htm

http://kdnnmcapushproject.blogspot.com/2012/01/john-tyler.html

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#9 William Henry Harrison

 henry harrison

Term: March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841

Party: Whig

After Van Buren a democrat failed to bring our nation out of depression, we turned to William Henry Harrison. The nation had trusted him after the first modern presidential campaign filled with slogans such as “Old Tippecanoe and tyler too” and other advertisements. The first president to die during his term, William Henry Harrison died of Pneumonia thirty two days into his term. Prior to his presidency, he was a general during the war of 1812 and later on joined the house of representatives. He left his position as senator to run for office representing the Whig party. For the first time, the section of the Constitution about presidential succession was enacted as the Vice president would succeed if the president is unable to continue his duties. After his death, he was succeeded by vice president John Tyler. The succession of a president was put into more detail with the 25th amendment adopted in 1967 stating, that the vice president would succeed the president if he can no longer serve in office and also providing other detail to succession.

Section 1.

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.”

(information about 25th amendment taken from “http://www.ushistory.org/gov/7c.asp”)

bib:

William Henry Harrison. (2015). The Biography.com website. Retrieved 09:05, Apr 19, 2015, fromhttp://www.biography.com/people/william-henry-harrison-9329968.

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/william-henry-harrison

http://millercenter.org/president/harrison/essays/biography/print

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#8 Martin Van Buren

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Term: 1837-1841

Party: Democrat

“ol’ Kinderhook” Martin Van Buren did not have an easy start in his term as president as the nation was in its first major depression since its independence. The Panic of 1837 was created during Jackson’s term as Jackson removed federal funding from the National bank into state banks known as “pet banks”. Van Buren attempted to tame the situation with the creation of an Independent Treasury to regulate spending. The failure of the banks and businesses and Van Buren’s extensions of Jacksonian ideals did not improve the situation. Although Van Buren’s administration did not create the depression, he was very much carrying the blame for it as he gained the nickname “Martin Van Ruin”.  He would fail to be reelected as president after his term. Martin Van Buren’s greatest accomplishments did not occur during his term, but instead occurred during Jackson’s as Martin Van Buren organized the Democratic party. Perhaps his legacy would be different if he was president in a different time, but as a president his job is to bring his nation through hard times and he in the most part failed to do so.

bib:

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/martinvanburen/p/pvanburen.htm

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/martin-van-buren

http://millercenter.org/president/vanburen/essays/biography/9

http://kdnnmcapushproject.blogspot.com/2012/01/martin-van-buren.html

http://history1800s.about.com/od/19th-Century-Presidents/ss/Martin-Van-Buren-Facts-and-Bio.htm

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#7 Andrew Jackson

7andrewjackson

Term: 1829-1837

Party: Democratic party

A military hero to the public, Andrew Jackson served in both the Revolutionary war and the War of 1812. Jackson appealed to the public as a “common man” and a representative which worked for the empowerment of all “common men”. Known as “Old Hickory”, Jackson was a near opposite of his predecessor John Quincy Adams in that he believed in a small central government. The roads and railroad funding from John Quincy Adam’s term would get no support from Jackson as he vetoed the bill to further construction. Jackson in his presidency alone vetoed more bill than every president before him  had combined, also he exercised the first “pocket vetoes” in U.S history.

In 1830, Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act which would relocate tribes (mainly Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Seminole, and Chikasaw) into lands west of the Mississippi river if they agreed to give up their land. Despite the Acts promising peaceful negotiations, many natives were forced to relocate with threats of the use of military force. This relocation would be known as the Trail of Tears as many of the natives died of diseases and hunger during the harsh conditions walking to Indian territory in Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, and Florida. In 1832, Andrew Jackson did not enforce the ruling that the State of Georgia had no right to move into Native territory as decided by the Supreme court.

Jackson’s next action as president would be towards the national bank. He would declare war on the second national bank that was created after the charter for the first nation bank  founded in 1791 by Washington and Hamilton. In 1833, Jackson would cease all federal funding to the second national bank which would be successfully removed by Jackson in 1836 when its charter expires.

As a president, Jackson was a very contradictory figure as he was loved by many as the representative of all Americans, but seen as tyrannical and abusive of his powers by others. Jackson would split the Democratic-Republican system into the two party system,his supporters would later on create the Democratic party that still exists today and his opposition would become the Whig party (a.k.a National Republicans) .

bib:

“Andrew Jackson.” The White House. The White House, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/andrewjackson

“Miller Center.” American President: Andrew Jackson: Impact and Legacy. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015

http://millercenter.org/president/jackson/essays/biography/9

“Andrew Jackson.” Andrew Jackson. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h154.html

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/indian-treaties

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/andrew-jackson

http://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/trail-of-tears

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/andrew-jackson-shuts-down-second-bank-of-the-u-s

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#6 John Quincy Adams

06_john_quincy_adams

Term: 1825-1829

Party: Federalist

Son of John Adams our second U.S. president and the Sixth U.S. president. Prior to serving as president, John Quincy Adams was Secretary of State under James Monroe. Under Monroe, J.Q. Adams took part in the drafting of many historical doctrines including the Treaty of Ghent, signed after the war of 1812. Also known for his influence on foreign policies(Monroe Doctrine,, making him one of the most successful Secretary of States in our Nation’s history. It was his accomplishments under Monroe would he run for office and with the “Corrupt Bargain” where presidential opponent Henry Clay gave up his supporters to Adams and with the extra support, Adams becomes president. As president, Adams believed in a large federal government and proposed a progressive plan to improve not only infrastructural projects, but educational programs as well.  J.Q. Adams pushed for advancements in sciences and arts stating,

that the nation blessed with the largest proportion of liberty must in proportion to its numbers be the most powerful nation upon earth, and that the tenure of power by man is, in the moral purposes of his Creator, upon condition that it shall be exercised to ends of beneficence, to improve the condition of himself and his fellow men.” (John Quincy Adams on the Role of the Government  1825).

Despite his achievements as Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams was disappointing as a President. His Ideas were criticized as exceeding the powers of the federal government. His plans to build a national university, roads (exception of the Cumberland road), canals (exception of the Erie canal), and a national bank were deemed too progressive failed to be completed. The majority of the nation at this time wanted less government regulations and the south feared for abolition leading to the fall of his popularity and would only serve one term. Despite his inadequacy as president, John Quincy Adams was in no doubt a successful diplomat and continued to take part in politics after his term. He is the only president to serve in congress after his presidency.

Bib:

“John Quincy Adams.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/john-quincy-adams

“The Successes and Failure of John Quincy Adams | Online Library of Law & Liberty.” Online Library of Law Liberty. N.p., 18 Sept. 2014. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

http://www.libertylawsite.org/2014/09/18/the-successes-and-failure-of-john-quincy-adams/

“John Quincy Adams.” John Quincy Adams. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h265.html

Kelly, Martin. “President John Quincy Adams – 10 Fascinating Facts.” N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/johnquincyadams/tp/Ten-Things-To-Know-About-John-Quincy-Adams.htm

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